Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal. Formal essays are characterized by "serious purpose, dignity, logical organization, length," whereas the informal essay is characterized by best school essay ghostwriting site london personal element self-revelation, individual tastes and experiences, confidential mannerhumor, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme," etc.
Almost all modern essays are written in prosebut works in verse have been dubbed essays e. In some countries e. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their best school essay ghostwriting site london skills; admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants, and in the humanities and social sciences essays are often used as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams.
The concept of an "essay" has been extended to other mediums beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles, and focuses more best school essay ghostwriting site london the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a linked series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions. An essay has been defined in a variety of ways.
One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". Aldous Huxleya leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. Furthermore, Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference".
These three poles or worlds in which the essay may exist are: Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays " In English essay first meant "a trial" or "an attempt", and this custom dissertation writing service still an alternative meaning. The Best school essay ghostwriting site london Michel de Montaigne best school essay ghostwriting site london was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as "attempts" to put his thoughts into writing, and his essays grew out of his commonplacing.
Best school essay ghostwriting site london the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English inaccording to the Oxford English Dictionary.
English essayists included Robert Burton — and Sir Thomas Browne — In Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Libro del oregano.
Best school essay ghostwriting site london the 18th custom essay editor sites canada 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. The early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English — William HazlittCharles LambLeigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects.
In the 20th century, best school essay ghostwriting site london number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays e. Whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays. Virginia WoolfEdmund Wilsonand Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays. Zuihitsu have existed since almost the beginnings of Japanese literature.
Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are in this genre. Notable examples include The Pillow Book c. Another noteworthy difference from Europe is that women have traditionally written in Japan, though the more formal, Chinese-influenced writings of male writers were more prized at the time. This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. These forms and styles are used by an array of authors, including university students and professional essayists.
The defining features of a "cause and effect" essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subjectdetermine the purposeconsider the audiencethink critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the languageand decide on more info conclusion.
It is grouped by the object chunking or by point sequential. The comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the pay write top phd are the rhetorical choices to consider when using a description.
A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative languagemetaphorand simile to arrive at a dominant impression.
In best school essay ghostwriting site london dialectic form of the essay, which is commonly used in philosophythe writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument with a counterargumentbut then counters the counterargument with a final and novel argument.
This form benefits from presenting a broader perspective while countering a possible flaw that some may present. This type is sometimes called an ethics paper. Writers need to consider their subject, determine their purpose, consider their audience, decide on specific examples, and arrange all the parts together when writing an exemplification essay.
The text makes it clear to the reader why the argument or claim is as such. The focus of a narrative is the plot. When creating a narrative, authors must determine their purpose, consider their audience, establish their point of view, use dialogue, and organize the narrative.
A narrative is usually arranged chronologically. The main idea of all the criticism is to provide an opinion either of positive or negative implication. As such, a critical essay requires research and analysis, strong internal logic and sharp structure. In addition, an argumentative essay may include a refutation section where conflicting ideas are acknowledged, described, and criticized.
Each argument of argumentative essay should be supported with sufficient evidence, relevant to the point. An economic essay can start with a thesis, or it can start with a theme. It can take a narrative course and a descriptive course. It can even become an argumentative essay if the author feels the need. Thus, the focus is not merely descriptive. The logical progression and organizational structure of an essay can take many forms.
Understanding how the movement of thought is managed through an essay has a profound impact on its overall cogency and ability to impress.
Best school essay ghostwriting site london number best school essay ghostwriting site london alternative logical structures for essays have been visualized as diagrams, making them easy to implement or adapt in the construction of an argument. Secondary students in these countries are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and essays are often used by universities in these countries in selecting applicants see admissions essay.
In both secondary and tertiary education, essays are used to judge the mastery and comprehension of the material. Students are asked to explain, comment on, or assess a topic of study in the form of an essay. In some courses, university students must complete one or more essays over several weeks or months. In addition, in fields such as the humanities and social sciences, [ citation ihnen cheap bibliography ghostwriters website for masters nach ] mid-term and end of term examinations often require students to write a short essay in two or three hours.
In these countries, so-called academic essays also called papersare usually more formal than literary ones. Longer academic essays often with a word limit of between 2, best school essay ghostwriting site london 5, words [ citation needed ] are often click at this page discursive.
They sometimes begin with a short summary analysis of what has previously been written on a topic, which is often called a literature review. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other porting material best school essay ghostwriting site london an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. More info of the challenges facing universities is that in some cases, students may submit essays purchased from an essay mill or "paper mill" as their own work.
An "essay mill" is a ghostwriting service that sells pre-written essays to university and college students. Since plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty or academic frauduniversities and colleges may best school essay ghostwriting site london papers they suspect are from an essay mill by using plagiarism detection software, which compares essays against a database of known mill essays and by orally testing students on the contents of their papers.
Magazine and newspaper essays use many of the best school essay ghostwriting site london types described in the section on forms best school essay ghostwriting site london styles e.
Some newspapers also print essays in the op-ed section. Employment essays detailing experience in a certain occupational field are required when applying for some jobs, especially government jobs in the United States.
Essays known as Knowledge Skills and Executive Core Qualifications are required when applying to certain US federal government positions.
A KSA, or "Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities," is a series of narrative statements that are required when applying to Federal best school essay ghostwriting site london job openings in the United States. KSAs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job.
The knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for the successful performance of a position are contained on each job vacancy announcement. An Executive Core Qualification, or ECQ, is a narrative statement that is required when applying to Senior Executive Service positions within the US Federal government. Like the KSAs, ECQs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job.
The Office of Personnel Management has established five executive core qualifications that all applicants seeking to enter the Senior Executive Service must demonstrate. A film essay or "cinematic essay" consists of the evolution of a theme or an idea rather than a plot per se, or the film literally being a cinematic accompaniment to a narrator reading an essay.
The cinematic essay often blends documentaryfictionand experimental film making using tones and editing styles. Jean-Luc Godard describes his recent work as "film-essays". Brecht was a playwright who experimented with film and incorporated film projections into some of his plays. He states that since that time, essay films have tended article source be "on the margins" of the filmmaking the world.
Essay films have a "peculiar searching, questioning tone Gray notes that just like written essays, essay films "tend to marry the personal voice of a guiding narrator often the director with a wide swath of other voices". A photographic essay strives to cover a topic with a read article series of photographs.
Photo essays range from purely photographic works to photographs with captions or small notes best school essay ghostwriting site london full-text essays with a few or many accompanying photographs. Photo essays can be sequential in nature, intended to be essay ghostwriters website critical uk in a particular order — or they may consist of non-ordered photographs viewed all at once or in an http://piernassexy.co/help-with-my-popular-personal-essay-on-usa.php that the viewer chooses.
All photo essays are collections of photographs, but not all collections of photographs are photo essays. Photo essays often address a certain issue or attempt to capture the character of places and events. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a description of essays as used by Wikipedia editors, see Wikipedia:Essays. For other uses, see Essai disambiguation. Main article: Free response Main article: Long-form journalism. A Handbook to Literature 9 ed.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Retrieved March 23, Retrieved March 22, Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Available online at: sfu. At Large and Help with letter online Small: Familiar Essays. The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, San Francisco Film Society. Click to see more from the original on March 15, Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Best school essay ghostwriting site london in.
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For ten years, I made my living helping students cheat. I worked as a professional ghostwriter, completing homework assignments, producing essays, and composing senior theses for alternately desperate, lazy, or disengaged college and graduate students. I worked as an independent contractor affiliated with various online paper mills and, between andspent nearly every day of my life immersed in academic research and compositional writing.
Writing as many as 5, typewritten pages a year, I earned as much as many professors. In November ofI announced my retirement in a tell-all article published in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Using the pseudonym Ed DanteI offered what was, for many, a first glimpse into the shadowy underworld of academic ghostwriting. This same purpose drives the present best school essay ghostwriting site london, which gives a thorough state-of-the-art account of how ghostwritten papers may be detected and deterred.
I offer this account as a resource to educators, administrators and schools who wish to better understand and more ably combat ghostwriting in their classrooms. For a companion piece by David A. Tomar, see The Ghostwriting Business: Trade Standards, Practices, and Secrets. Before it is possible to prevent and police ghostwriting, one must understand the industry.
Though many educators are well aware of ghostwriting, how it happens and that it most likely has occurred in their own classrooms, just as many others have a limited or nonexistent sense of its impact. Quite to the point, of the many reactions that greeted my original article in The Chronicle, doubt and skepticism were among the most common. Some truly dedicated, earnest, and otherwise astute educators refused to accept not only that wholesale cheating of this sort could be perpetrated but that it could be done so consistently and effectively without detection right under their noses.
I was actually a little shocked that they were so shocked. Too many educators were resistant to the idea rather arrogantly, if I may editorialize that a student could or would employ the services of a ghostwriter to complete a major assignment, a dissertation, or an entire course of study. But I worked directly with students over the course of entire semesters to develop theses, respond to mentor feedback, make revisions, and ultimately produce final dissertations.
We should first demystify this mode of cheating by analyzing it the way we would any traditional business, because, in most regards, it is a traditional business. Ghostwriting is legal, accessible and, with proper management, capable of driving a successful and sustainable company.
Your ability to confront ghostwriting will depend on how well you understand the nature and norms of the business. What follows is a ground level overview of best school essay ghostwriting site london industry. We will also build on this discussion with a more comprehensive and self-contained analysis of the business in a separate account. Here, however, we begin with a brief overview of the ghostwriting industry.
But for a frame of reference, we look to the practice of medical ghostwriting, which is more readily allowed read: overlooked than standard academic ghostwriting, but which is nonetheless reviled by academics and their critics.
As with graduate and undergraduate ghostwriting, medical ghostwriting is an industry that operates partially in plain view and partially in shadow. Flanagin et al found that of articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, for 19 percent there was evidence that guest authors had not substantially contributed to the article, 93 11 percent included ghost authors, and for 13 articles two percent there was evidence of both.
These findings also underscore just best school essay ghostwriting site london difficult it is to gain a full perspective on the prevalence of ghostwriting in colleges and grad schools. Still, we may be able to deduce a great deal just from the accessibility and ease-of-use of ghostwriting services.
If a student has the money, he or she has the means. Each of these terms will ultimately return dozens of pages just click for source relevant search results. These results provide us a glancing view of the online ghostwriting business but they also conceal layers of syndication; they obscure countries of origin; and they intermingle paper mills with legitimate education websites on the Internet landscape.
On the subject of legitimate sites, Coastal Carolina University provides us with a useful resource, though a relatively outdated one at this juncture. The site, last updated inoffers a list of Internet paper mills containing several hundred distinct entities and their associated links. Today, I use it as it was intended, to help widen our knowledge of this industry. I would therefore call attention to a useful fact elucidated by the CCU site regarding the syndication or networking of ghostwriting sites.
Though hundreds or thousands of links may appear for every search term entered, some of these sites will reflect overlap. Each site will pull in orders through its distinct order form. Orders see more consequently directed to a repository site to which independently contracted writers have access.
One staff of writers and one set of umbrella policies may actually serve several dozen companies or sites. For instance, ABC Papers, Amazing Papers, BookReportsRUs, Paper Campus, PaperResearch, and Paper Tutors all fall under the Paper Experts Inc.
CCU lists as many as 23 services affiliated with Paper Experts, though many appear to be defunct now. From this latter fact, we can also deduce that the shelf life varies considerably from ghostwriting service to the next.
Admittedly though, this inference probably does esl creative essay for college differentiate a ghostwriting startup company from any other web-based business. I can attest to the long-term survival of companies best school essay ghostwriting site london custompapers. Ghostwriting companies also vary widely in size. Most rely on a stable of independent contractors. However, this stable can range from just two or three writers to thousands.
As we will explore in a separate and more exhaustive article about the paper this web page business, best school essay ghostwriting site london buyer must always be wary. Best school essay ghostwriting site london control can vary greatly from one company or writer to the next.
The point that we raise with Crest Essays is that its best school essay ghostwriting site london of writers and its general output are substantial. This is true of at least several dozen if not several hundred companies of comparable size. There is little in the way of a comprehensive scientific review of the industry, its size, and the economy it commands. The global nature of the business, the chosen anonymity of the customer base and the fact that at least some portion of vendors engages in only semi-legitimate business practices make it difficult to truly ascertain the reach of ghostwriting in best school essay ghostwriting site london. From what is immediately apparent though, we can conclude two things about the prevalence of ghostwriting: In my experience, there are few freelance writing outlets where independent writers and unaffiliated clients are more readily, efficiently, and consistently paired with one another.
In terms of prevalence, the qualitative takeaway for educators is basically this: It is extremely easy for students to cheat using ghostwriting services. The variance is usually determined by deadline. Papers due in a best school essay ghostwriting site london or more are typically bound to the low end of the pricing spectrum. For anything due in less than a week, the cost per page will go up as the number of days goes down. A paper due in less than 24 hours will fall on the highest end of the cost-per-page spectrum.
Another feature that each of my past employers has in common is the use of a writer-manager or, in the case of larger companies, multiple writer-managers. In nearly all cases, the writer-manager will serve as a liaison between the company and the independently contracted writer; and as a mediator in conflicts, disagreements or confusion between writers and customers.
Given the linguistic challenges that so many ghostwriting clients face, the third of these occasions happens rather frequently. Each company has its own way of processing orders and delegating assignments. The mode of delegation is usually a determining factor in the operational model. Below is a brief outline of the three preeminent operational models.
The models outlined here are drawn largely from personal experience. A writer-manager will send assignments directly to a writer based on declared areas of expertise. Assignments will come with instructions, deadline, and amount of compensation.
When a writer agrees to take on an assignment, he or she becomes responsible for submission by the deadline. Based on the deadline, best school essay ghostwriting site london, and anticipated difficulty of an assignment, writers will quote prices for prospective assignments. Though writers create their own bids, relative market value still applies. Bids that overshoot the anticipated value are rarely matched with assignments.
Another writer will likely quote a fairer price. This is the most sophisticated and efficient front- and back-end model. When an order is placed through a website, pricing is automatically determined per-page based on the length of time until deadline.
The order is also automatically placed on a bulletin board visible to writers by way of username and password. This gives the writer an opportunity to visit the board and select orders at his or her discretion. The ghostwriting industry enjoys a cheap proofreading service for college base comprised of three primary demographics.
These are the likeliest perpetrators of ghostwritten plagiarism:. International students often arrive at American universities without a background or meaningful support in English composition. According to a study, these students lack the skills for paraphrasing and inferential use of sources possessed by their English-speaking counterparts.
International students comprise a ready-made source of revenue for the ghostwriting business. These students turn to ghostwriting services out of a combination of desperation and expedience. A startling number American students—for whom English is a native language—will actually suffer from many of these exact same deficits.
The viability of the ghostwriting industry shines a spotlight on the tragically overlooked prevalence of students at the undergraduate and even graduate levels who simply lack the skills or knowledge to produce university-level writing or research. Some ghostwriting clients simply lack the motivation and interest to complete their own work, a condition that Farnese et al.
In other cases, the lazy student may, in addition to being unmotivated, lack the necessary writing and research skills to complete the task at hand. These students turn to ghostwriting services as the path of least resistance. As we proceed with the discussion of detection and prevention, it will be useful to consider that different strategies may apply to different demographics.
In the conversation on prevention, the motivation to cheat is of considerable importance and can help educators to target students with preventative strategies. As we will find, removing the sense of pressure or dread that comes with academic deficiency or misplacement may be an important part of contending with ghostwriting and with academic cheating on a more general scale.
Ghostwriting is hardly a new phenomenon nor is it one inherently dependent upon web proliferation. As I mentioned, I myself got started the old-fashioned way, taking orders from fellow Rutgers classmates and accumulating a growing independent business entirely by word of mouth.
However, the web has proliferated and simplified cheating, dramatically expanding the accessibility, visibility, and ease with which students can lift, recycle or otherwise claim authorship of work that is not their own. Consequently, the growth of this industry helped to provoke the growth of the plagiarism-detection industry of which Turnitin is a leading example.
Other notable sites include Viper, Plagscan, Plagtracker, Grammarly, Small SEO Tools, and Plagiarism Checker. Turnitin represents the gold standard in plagiarism detection. Even so, given the limitations inherent in plagiarism detection, even Turnitin has no way to bring its extensive empirical data to bear on ghostwriting. This is not because Turnitin is unaware of the ghostwriting industry.
To the contrary, the company has shown itself quite open and dedicated to better understanding the impact of ghostwriting. For many ghostwriting customers, this detection software actually provides a modicum of comfort, this web page best school essay ghostwriting site london the instructor may not be reading the work and simply be letting automated plagiarism checkers test for originality.
Presuming the ghostwriter has created a wholly original piece, Turnitin software will not detect any irregularity. Further, it is quite common for a customer to include a specification in their instructions that all completed work will be passed through Turnitin or a similar program. This means that the ghostwriter can often make practical decisions that will ensure no irregularities are detected.
The motivation to do so is simply sound business practice and helps to facilitate repeat patronage. But most ghostwriting companies also succeed on the strength of the return customer. Each company that I worked for provided the customer with a field in the order form by which to request a preferred writer. I would receive an automatic email notification telling me that a customer had requested my services.
In addition to the implication that such repeat customers have clearly succeeded in passing ghostwritten work off as their own on multiple occasions, this repeat business denotes that ghostwriters are actively engaged in practices designed to evade detection. With these conditions in mind, we point to a handful of detection and deterrence challenges that are unique to popular essay sites sf. Most ghostwriting companies are faithful to this service guarantee and will terminate independent contractors for failure to comply.
Though the optimistic educator may take some comfort in the view that paper mills are not legitimate enough to constitute a threat, there are rules for professional paper writers and the more successful companies will enforce them.
Chief among these rules is the responsibility to provide completely original, never-before-used material crafted to respond to a specific assignment inquiry. Ghostwriting places the onus on the educator to have initial cause for suspicion.
This requires the individual grading a written assignment to sense a disconnect between the student and the assignment, which of course requires some initial familiarity with the student in question. There are a great many educational contexts in which this is difficult if not impossible. When I began my ghostwriting career at Rutgers, there was no mystery as to why the semi-coherent, fraternity-bound, budding alcoholics who used my services were able to pass my work off as their own.
Courses are routinely taught in lecture halls containing hundreds of students; click assignments are often reviewed by teaching assistants; and any personal interaction between professor and student best school essay ghostwriting site london strictly optional.
Naturally, students who plan on defrauding the professor are distinctly less likely to pursue a personal relationship with him or best school essay ghostwriting site london. These challenges are compounded even further as a consequence of distance learning, online education and for-profit best school essay ghostwriting site london the last of which I mention here both because much of it is exclusively online and because ghostwritten cheating abounds in this context.
Learning contexts like this demonstrate just how unlikely it really is that a professor will have cause best school essay ghostwriting site london question the authorship of an assignment once it has passed through plagiarism detection software. That said, ghostwriting is not confined to the best school essay ghostwriting site london class or giant lecture hall. I was also top mba essay editing service usa hired to write in direct response to professor feedback, especially in post-graduate contexts.
This suggests best school essay ghostwriting site london some students are not dissuaded from employing ghostwriting services in more intimate settings, even as intimate as one-on-one interaction with an academic mentor.
Cheating is, hierfГr esl critical thinking writer for hire sf habe course, a serious allegation and students have a lot riding on the completion of their education. So obviously, the average student will go to great lengths to deny any such allegations. Students best school essay ghostwriting site london not afraid to get litigious if need be.
The point is, as an educator, one must be very careful about levying the accusation without hard evidence. This is true regardless of the chosen method of cheating. What continue reading ghostwriting is that, true to its name, it leaves a far less visible trail.
Assuming that an instructor has cause to suspect an assignment, he or she now has the unenviable obligation to demonstrate guilt based on a well-informed and probably correct suspicion. The process is an uphill climb. Plagiarism detection software or even a quick Google search can verify suspicion of a cut-and-paste job and yield incontrovertible proof. Part of the discussion of detection and deterrence must logically revolve around finding ways of accumulating concrete proof based on suspicion.
Taken together, these challenges render many traditional methods of combating plagiarism even flimsier when applied to ghostwriting. This means that most professors have almost certainly graded ghostwritten material without ever realizing it.
There are perhaps as many others who have graded ghostwritten materials with some level of suspicion but without the means, institutional support or emotional energy to translate this into proof. The challenges specific to ghostwriting call for an approach that is not merely reactive i. That is to say that educators and institutions can take certain preemptive steps that both discourage cheating by way of ghostwriting and place educators in a more advantageous position to spot questionable work and acquire meaningful proof of its third-party authorship.
Naturally, he shows up for the final exam with all the answers written on his arm. He finishes the exam and brings it to the front of the room. As he places it on the top best school essay ghostwriting site london the test pile, the professor looks down at him from the lectern. He observes the cheat-sheet scrawled on the student and demands to see his arm. So the student shoves best school essay ghostwriting site london exam in the middle of the stack and quickly departs.
There is a lot about the system of higher education, as it is today, that makes cheating easy. The goal of the present account is to help educators create a campus atmosphere where cheating is neither as easy nor as desirable.
This calls for a combination of reactive and proactive measures, an encompassing approach that broadens and gives nuance best school essay ghostwriting site london the fight against cheating. There are far-reaching educational issues implicated by the viability of the ghostwriting industry.
To reiterate the challenges facing students with learning or language deficiencies, policing alone does not get to the root of the problem. The goal of this strategy, therefore, is best school essay ghostwriting site london take on cheating both as a violation of academic integrity and as a symptom of some broader problems within our educational click at this page. Design refers to the way a professor constructs assignments, course materials, tests, classroom time and the semester-long curriculum.
This is an area in education where quality control runs the gamut from excellence to criminal incompetence. There are plenty of professors who work tirelessly to tailor assignments, materials and examinations to remain in-step with constantly evolving subject matter, student culture and best practices.
But there are also plenty of professors who recycle old materials without scrutiny and who depend wholly on text-based content which most students could acquire without professor mediation. With those professors who take the latter approach, students may find cheating not only easier but also more susceptible to rationalization. One of the most common forms of cheating involves submitting work produced by students in previous courses.
Relatively subtle changes to assessment tasks can best school essay ghostwriting site london enough to alert markers best school essay ghostwriting site london cheating.
Case studies, contexts, data sets, and actual items can be changed while assessing the same outcomes. Even just 20 years ago, the risks of reusing the same best school essay ghostwriting site london assignment or exam were modest.
There have always been on-campus repositories of completed assignments available for student purchase. This is not to suggest that the ghostwriter will struggle to complete an assignment that is otherwise unique and original in nature.
To say it simply, a generic assignment begets a generic essay. If this is all an instructor seeks from his or her students, said instructor makes it nearly impossible to differentiate between the work of a pupil and the work of a person who has never set a foot in the lecture hall.
If, by contrast, one designs materials, assignments and exams with thought, care, and specificity, one has much better odds of spotting the work of an outsider. Class time should be used to challenge students with unique and fun writing exercises. There are a lot of ways to integrate this strategy into an existing curriculum.
Assignments can be formal and woven into the grading structure or they can simply be loosely defined writing activities designed to promote critical thinking. The important thing is that these assignments will require students to write thoughtfully and uniquely on course-relevant subjects, providing the instructor with readily verifiable writing samples throughout a semester. No matter how convincingly a ghostwriter writes on a given subject, this approach provides a document whose authorship is not in question as a point of comparison.
For assignments of greater depth, a balance between in-class and out-of-class draft-writing offers a measure of oversight even as the student pursues an assignment independently. The caveat with this strategy is that there may be nothing stopping the student from outsourcing each and every draft of the assignment.
However, using the multi-draft process can stretch an assignment out across weeks or months. This results in a greater length of exposure for the cheating student. Instead of the once-and-done best school essay ghostwriting site london of getting away with a single ghostwritten assignment, each student knows that his or her work will be held up to sustained and ongoing scrutiny.
By inserting one-on-one conferences into this draft process, the instructor can heighten this scrutiny by requiring each student to defend the approach, argument, esl home work proofreading sites nyc decisions comprising the written work. This is also an opportunity to challenge students to craft unique arguments based on course content.
This challenge may even strain the credibility of submitted assignments to the point of making them more detectable. In other words, Thier popular blog post editing site london kann assignment instructs the student to write about a life-changing experience and the customer leaves me, the ghostwriter, with the power to define this life-changing experience.
Naturally, not every subject or discipline lends itself to personalization. Most ghostwriters have no problem with a little creative writing but, again, this approach gives an educator the chance to spot a mismatch between a student and the written work. Just as experienced ghostwriters become accustomed to seeing the exact same assignments over and over, they also get accustomed to seeing the same sources and course materials again and again.
Instructors can reduce the ease with which an outsider can replicate old assignments by updating course materials and creating new assignments best school essay ghostwriting site london an annual basis.
Ghostwriters rely on materials that are readily available online and prefer the efficiency of assignments that can be summoned from memory and experience. In addition to creating unique course materials, a course should be designed to distinguish the in-class experience from the experience of reading about something on Wikipedia. Most texts are readily available online. By contrast, a lecture, a class discussion and the experience of being a part of both should be something unique and impossible to replicate.
Naturally, if they can get it on the Internet, so can any ghostwriter. The goal best school essay ghostwriting site london obviously not to eliminate, supersede, or overlook the standard texts. The classics are important. But differentiating what happens in a classroom and calling for written work that reflects this differentiation do create a genuine challenge for the ghostwriter.
Predictable testing methods i. Multiple-choice, machine-graded exams help the student differentiate between reporting to class on test day and outsourcing take-home writing work. Merging essay-writing and test-taking best school essay ghostwriting site london this impression.
Instructors can create best school essay ghostwriting site london format tests that include multiple-choice, essay questions, short-answer questions, etc. This approach requires the student to demonstrate writing capacity during in-class testing.
Best school essay ghostwriting site london again, this approach results in the creation of a written document that one can be certain originated from the student in question. This forms a good basis for comparison with suspicious take-home work and—insofar as it also might give the student pause before submitting ghostwritten work—also makes an excellent segue into our discussion on deterrence.
Deterrence refers to ways of diminishing the inclination, motive, or desire to best school essay ghostwriting site london a ghostwritten paper. A Research in Higher Education study, seeking to understand the motives behind student cheating, finds that cheating is often rational in nature.
The study finds that the onus falls on instructors to live up to certain student expectations regarding clarity and engagement of course content. The study identifies this as the best route to deterring the rationalized impulse to use a ghostwriting service. The NZQA suggests that one way to deter cheating is to be in a state of constant evidence-gathering.
The NZQA notes that such best school essay ghostwriting site london can extend from written work to a mix of formative and summative assessments as well as informal ongoing observations. This research is compatible with my experience to some extent. Students know when a professor is disengaged from the subject, the class, or the general profession of educating our youth. The Honor System is a useful way to ensure that students understand what is source of their work in terms of originality.
But it makes for a poor deterrent on its own. The customers who contact ghostwriting services out of laziness or a feeling of being overburdened by their various personal and academic responsibilities are generally not moved by the ethical quandary of cheating. When they express concern to the ghostwriter about the process of purchasing and receiving a ghostwritten paper, all of this concern focuses on the fear of being caught.
Best school essay ghostwriting site london many of the suggestions below revolve around student engagement as a way of deterring cheating, they work best when more info by sound detection strategies such as those outlined in the subsequent section.
Individualization of the educational experience can instill in the student a greater sense of commitment to course materials and to the knowledge learn more here career opportunities thereby implied. Large best school essay ghostwriting site london halls and online courses can create a sense of anonymity for the would-be cheater.
Instructors can remove this sense of anonymity by creating opportunities where students can advance along individual research paths while sharing the same larger educational experience. Strategies include greater research subject flexibility, more opportunities for independent study and the chance to complete work directly relevant to a chosen career path.
Students will be less inclined to employ the services of a ghostwriter if they believe that what they are researching will actually lead to pertinent knowledge and best school essay ghostwriting site london with value beyond university halls.
One thing that large universities and online courses have in common click at this page that, if one desires, one can go an entire semester without ever once personally meeting a professor.
There is comfort in this anonymity. Removing this comfort creates a deterrent that does not otherwise exist. With respect to online courses, videoconferencing applications are now readily available and standard for laptops, home computers, and smartphones.
By building best school essay ghostwriting site london or videoconferencing into the semester, the instructor fosters a relationship with his or her students that will function as its own deterrent. Mandatory class participation heightens the imperative for students to become familiar with course content. Mandating best school essay ghostwriting site london to class discussions gives students a strong incentive to establish a consistent voice and perspective on course subjects.
Class discussion helps to create a connection between the student and certain ideas, perspectives, and ways of expressing oneself on a given subject. The more intensive and exciting the in-class discussion, the harder it will be for students to divorce themselves from the ideas stated in class. As a ghostwriter, I have completed countless assignments on controversial social issues like gun control, abortion, affirmative action, and the War on Terror.
In every case, the student is likely to have a well-defined position and some fairly personal reasons for that position. By creating a safe educational context in which these positions can be shared, explored, defended, and held in civil contrast with one another, the instructor can deter the student from outsourcing the expression of these positions when it best school essay ghostwriting site london time to write.
This approach forces students to own the opinions and ideas that will ultimately form their written work. As a bonus, this approach is also more than likely helping students to refine their ideas in ways that make them better prepared to handle their written assignments. This one is really and truly up to each individual educator. In reality, this relationship weighs heavier on the conscience.
Many students feel no remorse about cheating in a course from which there is a feeling of disengagement. Uninspired lectures, standard texts, and generic assignments serve as great ammunition for a student who wishes to rationalize his or her detachment. These conditions also help to reinforce the commonly held conception among students that education revolves around grading rather than learning.
Educators create a deterrent to this attitude by being their best selves in the classroom, during their office hours and beyond. In each instance, the student has added cause to be intimately familiar with his more info her subject and is therefore deterred from handing the subject off to a ghostwriter.
Detection is both a manual process driven by professorial experience and a technology-driven process with continued room for growth and improvement.
In a study regarding authorship identification of online messages, Zheng et al. These habits, such as paragraph length, use of indentation, and use of signature, can be strong authorial evidence of personal writing style. But faculty must review and interpret the report. Only the critical eye of the professor will be capable of determining if academic dishonesty has occurred.
The best school essay ghostwriting site london is to find instructive and innovative ways of merging human analysis and technology-mediated assessment to detect best school essay ghostwriting site london. The tool will be soon enlarged with ghostwriter detectors. We do hope that it will discover the cheat and reduce it to the level of previous years.
The study acknowledges the read article of applying this strategy to the decidedly more modest bodies of work created by individual students.
It is hoped that even as a precursor to a full-scale study, this project will be able to suggest steps that maximize the reliability of ascription of ghostwritten works. Turnitin and other plagiarism-detection services have all but eliminated the threats of copy-and-paste, duplication, and other modes of self-directed online cheating. Of course, students attempt all of these methods anyway.
But educators do have a resource at their disposal that absolutely works. Students who use ghostwriting services know this quite well. As I noted earlier, assignment instructions often include the specification that Turnitin will be used. The ghostwriter will compose an assignment with every intention of evading this security. But of course, the ghostwriter can only control what goes on outside of the classroom. It therefore falls on the professor to use in-class time wisely.
Standardizing one-on-one conferencing with each student following assignment-submission requires each student to defend his or her writing. This is an especially attractive approach because it need not revolve around the suspicion of cheating. This healthy exercise can simply serve as a way of helping the student to reflect on the content of an assignment and the process involved in its completion.
Inconsistencies between the ideas, voice and knowledge expressed in the written work and in the interview will serve as red flags and as a point of entry for a more prying investigation.
Of the many strategies outlined in this account, this may well be the most readily adaptable to any context where writing forms a portion of the coursework. Here, the orientation process for any writing-intensive course will begin with an in-class writing check this out. This sample will serve as a literary fingerprint for each student to be used for the purpose of matching against voice, diction, and other distinguishing features when evaluating future assignments for signs check this out ghostwriting.
In addition to being adaptable to any number of learning contexts, this is a strategy that could also produce meaningful evidence of cheating or, at the very least, shift the burden of proof to the student. Not to be overlooked is the opportunity that this strategy also offers to identify students who struggle with best school essay ghostwriting site london and to provide them with access to the support they need. One way to improve the chances of detecting ghostwritten work is to simply be a savvier user of technology than the average cheating student.
Most instructors already require students to submit materials digitally. Certainly this is true for educators teaching online courses and for those who source plagiarism-detection software. All of this information constitutes real, concrete, and usable evidence in making a case against a student suspected of cheating. Based on the effectiveness and value of Turnitin.
According to a study published in the December International Journal of Computer Science and Network, stylometric [O1][BT2]software may be an effective tool in author identification and authentication.
Its use has historically pertained to authorship attribution for ancient texts and classical works of literature whose authorship is in question.
However, a compelling study from notes that a forensic interest in online authorship attribution has given new purpose to stylometric analysis.
Researchers point to two major best school essay ghostwriting site london in the detection of online authorship: the error-prone and unstructured nature of online content and the brevity of most samples. This would add a layer of detection against ghostwriting that does not yet exist. Such technology is largely in the research and development phase today but, once market-ready, could significantly ease the burden of detection placed best school essay ghostwriting site london the educator.
Teachers are in the classroom to teach. The instructor must be dedicated to the education of his or her students, not just to punching best school essay ghostwriting site london academic time card. Far too many students show up in the classroom best school essay ghostwriting site london lecture hall without even the basic fundamental writing skills needed to compose click to see more Tweet let alone plumb the depths of anything.
More than that, it invokes the idea of bringing a knife to a gunfight. For most, the fear of getting caught is substantially less than the fear of failing, mostly because the latter seems likelier than the former. No amount of threatening can stop a desperate student from taking the last resort. There is a perspective today, fostered by scandals at silver-spoon academies like Stuyvesant High School and Harvard University, that privileged students are cheating more than ever before.
And that is almost certainly true. Day in, day out, my work as a ghostwriter brought me into contact with students who truly and completely lacked the capacity to communicate through the written medium. I corresponded with them via email. The writing deficiencies that students carry into college and beyond are nothing short of disturbing.
Some of them were wealthy students in reputable universities. Some of them were lower middle-class Phoenix University enrollees who were probably using some portion of their student loan money to pay for my services.
To deter them from hiring ghostwriters, it is necessary to do more than scare them. We need to help them. These are the students who are by far the most likely to employ a ghostwriter. In order to reduce the presence of the ghostwriter in the classroom, educators must take preemptive steps to identify those who are most likely to need his services.
Addressing their struggles reduces the single biggest motive for academic dishonesty. It is important to connect struggling students—graduate and undergraduate alike—to needed academic support. It is no longer reasonable to take for Patienten essays ghostwriter service australia herausgegeben the idea that a student who has somehow advanced along the educational continuum to arrive in a university classroom must inherently have the academic skills needed to succeed there.
Instead, we must presume that struggling students are far more vulnerable to the temptation of cheating. Finding that suitable alternative could be a game-changer for many would-be ghostwriting clients.
The strategies I outline here are not one-size-fits-all. Higher education exists in all shapes, sizes, media, and models. It falls upon each educator to synthesize the strategies outlined here with their own ideas to create an approach that best suits a given educational context. Of the many things that distinguish ghostwriting from other methods of cheating, there is no magic bullet that can be used to kill it.
Instead, this resource aims to promote an educational strategy that weakens the ability of ghostwriters to do their job, that diminishes the appeal of ghostwriting services for students, that creates a more keenly aware educator and that takes a curative rather click the following article punitive approach to students who are in need of help.
There is an impetus here throughout to promote learning strategies that are more varied, distinctive, creative, and enriching and which also foster a more familiar working relationship between students and educators. The combination of these strategies will heighten the ability of educators to discourage and detect ghostwriting while also minimizing the factors that motivate students to use such services. Many of these strategies are labor-intensive.
Many demand that the instructor spend more time working on course materials, interacting with students, and becoming familiar with students as writers and as individuals.
Even if the motive in taking any of these steps is to click here or deter ghostwriting in the classroom, the outcome will be a more positive and engaging educational experience for educators and students alike.
Stylometric Analysis for Authorship Attribution on Twitter. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, p. Challenges and Possible Solutions to Using statistics to Detect Ghostwriting: A Preliminary Investigation. Kennesaw State University: Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning. EMBO Reports, 12 6best school essay ghostwriting site london Accounting For Cheating: An Evolving Theory and Emergent Themes.
Research in Higher Education52 6p. Center for Educational Resources CER. Deterring and Detecting Plagiarism with Turnitin. Cheating Behaviors in Academic Context: Does Academic Moral Disengagement Matter? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, — The Brutally Honest Truth About Ghostwriting.
Academic Performance and Cheating: Moderating Role of School Identification and Self-Efficacy. The Journal of Educational Research, 97 3— Using Writing Assignment Designs To Mitigate Plagiarism. Teaching Sociology, 41 194— Presentations, Cheating Internet Paper Mills. A Study on Author Identification Through Stylometry. New Zealand Qualifications Authority NZQA. Effective Practice In Preventing and Detecting Academic Fraud. Studies Find Best scholarship essay writer for hire online Students Cheating With High Achievers No Exception.
The Plagiarism Spectrum: Tagging 10 Types of Unoriginal Work. System, 31 2— Fifty Ways to Detect a Ghostwriter. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje, Macedonia. A Framework for Authorship Identification of Online Message: Writing-Style Features and Classification Techniques.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology57 3— The Best Schools Our latest. Detecting and Deterring Ghostwritten Papers: A Guide to Best Practices. Select a Degree Level. STEP 3 Featured Online Colleges. Best school essay ghostwriting site london Online College in Each State. Recognized Schools for Autism. Guide to Online Education.
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