An alley or alleyway is a narrow lanepathor passageway, often reserved for pedestrianswhich usually runs between, behind, or within buildings in the older parts cheap biography writers services liverpool towns and cities. It is also a rear access or service road back laneor a path or walk in a park or garden.
The origin of the word alley is late Middle Englishfrom Old French : alee "walking or passage", from aler "go", from Latin : ambulare "to walk". Similar paths also exist in some older North American towns and cities.
In some older urban development in North America lanes at the rear of houses, to allow for deliveries and garbage collection, are called alleys. Alleys and ginnels were click at this page the product of the Public Health Act in the United Kingdomwhere usually alleys run cheap biography writers services liverpool the back of streets of terraced houseswith ginnels connecting them to the street every fifth house.
Modern urban developments may also provide a service road to allow for waste collection, or rear access for fire engines and parking. Because of geography, steps stairs are the predominant form of alley in hilly cities and towns. This includes Pittsburgh see Steps of PittsburghCincinnati see Steps cheap biography writers services liverpool CincinnatiMinneapolisSeattle and San Francisco  in the United States, as well as Hong Kong Genoa best annotated bibliography proofreading for hire toronto Rome.
The latter follow the line of rights-of way that existed before the railway was built. Arcades are another kind of covered passageway and the simplest kind are no more than alleys to which a glass roof was added later, like, for example, Howey Place, MelbourneAustralia see also Block PlaceMelbourne. However, most arcades differ from alleys in that they are architectural structures built with a commercial purpose and are a form of shopping mall. All the same alleys have for long been associated with various types of businesses, especially pubs and coffee houses.
Bazaars and Souqs are an early form of arcade found in Asia and North Africa. It was originally a gambling district with restaurants, shops, and opium dens. Today it is a tourist destination with many small shops including a barber shop, art gallery, Chinese cafe and apartments.
It may well be the narrowest street cheap biography writers services liverpool Canada. At its narrowest point it is only 0. Other heritage features are buildings more than a century old lining the alley and a rare metal carriage curb that edges the sidewalk on the southern end.
In residential areas, particularly in those that were built beforealleys cheap biography writers services liverpool rear access to property where a garage was located, or where waste could be collected by service vehicles.
A benefit of this was the location of these activities to the rear, less public side of a dwelling. Such alleys are generally roughly paved, but some may be dirt.
Beginning in the late 20th century, they were seldom included in plans for new housing developments. When Annapolis, Marylandwas established as a city at the beginning of the 18th century,  the streets were established in circles. Cheap biography writers services liverpool encouraged the creation of visit web page, which over time became paved alleys.
Some ten of these survive, and the city has recently worked on making them more attractive. These include Hyde ParkRosedaleand areas northwest of the Austin State Hospital. Boston also has many of the more seedy kind. Another early settled American city, New Cheap biography writers services liverpool, Delaware has a number of interesting alleys, some of which are footpaths and others narrow, write environmental studies book cobbled, lanes open to traffic.
Many of the alleys in the Back Bay and South End area are numbered e. Originally French Hugenot merchants built homes on it, along with cheap biography writers services liverpool to store supplies their ships. Cincinnati is a city of hills. The exclusion of alleys has been criticized as a flaw in the plan, since services such as garbage pickup cannot be provided out of sight of the public, although other commentators feel that the lack of alleys is a benefit to the quality of life of the city.
The mid-block crossing at 57th Street is equipped with a traffic light. Greenwich Village also has a number of private alleys that lead to back houses, which can only be accessed by residents, including Grove Court,  Patchin Place and Milligan Place, blind alleys.
Patchin Place is notable for the writers who lived there. The alley was originally created as a fire exit between the Shubert Theatre on West 45th Street and the Booth Theatre on West 44th Street, and the Astor Hotel to their east. Actors once gathered in the alley, hoping to attract the attention of the Shubert Brothers and get employment in their theatrical productions.
However, official, Shubert Alley consists only of the space between the two theatres and the lot line. In the Brooklyn Heights neighborhood of BrooklynGrace Court Alley is another converted mews,  as is Dennett Place in the Carroll Gardens neighborhood. A typical house on these alleys or lanes cheap biography writers services liverpool called a Philadelphia "Trinity", named because it has three rooms, one to each floor, alluding to the Christian Trinity. James Place,  and numerous others.
Writing inwar correspondent Ernie Pyle wrote of the steps of Pittsburgh: And then the steps. Oh Lord, the steps! I was told they actually had a Department of Steps. The stairway is bordered by greenery, that consists both backyards, and a border garden tended to and paid for by the residents of the "street", and runs down to an eastern stub of Filbert Street and the walkway through the plaza to The Embarcadero.
Many houses in this residential neighborhood are accessible only from the steps. Approximately 3, sponsored by the French government, arrived near the cheap biography writers services liverpool of the Gold Rush in There are over publicly accessible Seattle stairways within the city limits.
This program, called the Green Alley Program, check this out supposed to enable easier water runoff, as the alleyways in Chicago are not connected directly to the sewer system.
With this program, the water will be able to seep through semi-permeable concrete or asphalt in which a colony of fungi and bacteria will establish itself. The bacteria will help breakup oils before the water is absorbed into the ground. The lighter color of the pavement will also reflect more light, making the area next to the alley cooler.
New life has also come to other alleys within downtown commercial districts of various cities throughout the world with the opening of businesses, such as coffee houses, shops, restaurants and bars. Another way that alleys and laneways are being revitalized is through laneway housing. A laneway house is a form of housing that has been proposed on the west coast of Canadaespecially in the Metro Vancouver area.
These homes are typically built into pre-existing lotsusually in the backyard and opening onto the back lane. This form of housing already exists in Vancouver, and revised regulations now encourage new developments as part of a plan to increase urban density in pre-existing neighbourhoods while retaining a single-family feel to the area.
Typical regulations require that the laneway home is built on the back half of a traditional lot in the space normally reserved for a garage. An alley in London can also be called a passage, court, place, lane, and less commonly path, arcadewalk, stepsyard, terrace, and close.
These activities cheap biography writers services liverpool the progenitor of the popular resume writers website gb London Stock Exchange.
The first mention of a pub on the site is It was the temporary home of an eight-year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart while he was touring Europe in For almost four months the Mozart family lodged with barber John Couzin. Cheap biography writers services liverpool was built, as an alley, along the backs of houses on Upper Street, then Islington High Street, in The term close has an unvoiced "s" as in sad.
Close is the generic Scots term for alleyways, course mba work popular examples they may be individually named closes, entries, courts and wynds. Cheap biography writers services liverpool close was private property, hence gated and closed to the public.
A wynd is typically a narrow lane between houses, help writing government essay open throughway, usually wide enough for a horse and cart. The word derives from Old Norse vendaimplying a turning off a main street, without implying that it is curved. In many places wynds link streets at different heights and thus are mostly thought of as being ways up or down hills. A pend is a passageway that passes through a building, often from a street through to a courtyardand typically designed for vehicular rather than exclusively pedestrian access.
A vennel is a passageway between the esl book review ghostwriter websites sf of two buildings which can in effect be a minor street in Scotland and the north east of Englandparticularly in the old centre of Durham. In Scotland, the term originated in royal burghs created in the twelfth century, the word deriving from the Old French word venelle meaning "alley" or "lane". Unlike a tenement entry to private property, known as a "close", a vennel cheap biography writers services liverpool a public way leading from cheap biography writers services liverpool typical high street to the open ground beyond the burgage plots.
The traboules of Lyon are passageways that cut through a house or, in some cases, a whole city block, linking one street with another.
They are distinct from most other alleys in that they are mainly enclosed within buildings and may include staircases. The word traboule comes from the Latin trans ambularemeaning "to cross", and the first of them were possibly built as early as the 4th century. For centuries they were used by people to fetch water from the river and then by craftsmen and traders to transport their goods. Most traboules are on private property, serving as cheap biography writers services liverpool to local apartments.
Venice is largely a traffic free city and there is, in addition to the canals, a maze of around lanes and cheap biography writers services liverpool called calli which means narrow. Their width varies from just over 50 centimetres The narrowest is Calletta Varisco, which just 53 centimetres It is a pedestrian zone and though only some metres long, is nevertheless famous for its medieval history.
The Lintgasse was first mentioned in the 12th century as in Lintgazzinwhich may be derived from basketmakers who wove fish baskets out of Linden tree barks. These craftsmen were called Lindslizermeaning Linden splitter.
Lintgasse 8 to 14 used to be homes of medieval knights as still can be seen by signs like Zum HuynenZum Ritter or Zum Gir. The town dates back to the 13th century, with medieval alleyways, cobbled streets, and historic buildings.
According to sources from the late 16th century, he was dealing in first iron and later copper, by had sworn his burgher oath, and was later to become one of the richest merchants in Stockholm.
Closed off in the mid 19th century, not to be reopened untilits cheap biography writers services liverpool name was officially sanctioned by the city in In Beijing, hutongs are alleys formed by lines of siheyuantraditional courtyard residences.
The word hutong is also used to refer to such neighbourhoods. The term "hutong" appeared first during the Yuan Dynastyand is a term of Mongolian origin meaning "town". The traditional arrangement of hutongs was also affected. Many new hutongs, built haphazardly check this out with no apparent plan, began to appear on the outskirts of the old city, while the old ones lost their former neat appearance.
Many residents left the lanes where their families lived for generations for apartment buildings with modern amenities. In Xicheng Districtfor example, nearly hutongs out of the it held in have disappeared. Many hutongs, some several hundred years old, in the vicinity of the Bell Tower and Drum Tower and Shichahai Lake are preserved cheap biography writers services liverpool recreated contemporary two- and three-storey versions.
At its narrowest section, Qianshi Hutong near Qianmen Front Gate is only 40 centimeters 16 inches wide. As with the term hutong, the Shanghai longdang can either refers to the lanes that the houses face onto, or a group of houses connected by the lane. It is composed of a network of six narrow alleys, connected by even narrower passageways which are just about wide enough for learn more here single person to pass through.
Over tiny shanty-style bars, clubs and eateries are squeezed into this area. Nowadays, most of the surrounding area has been redeveloped.
Typically, the cheap biography writers services liverpool are just a few feet wide and are built so close to the ones next door that they nearly touch. Most are two-storey, having a small bar at street level and either another bar or a tiny flat upstairs, reached by a steep set of stairs. None of the bars are very large; some are cheap biography writers services liverpool small that they cheap biography writers services liverpool only fit five or cheap biography writers services liverpool customers at one time.
However, Golden Gai is not a cheap place to drink, and the clientele that it attracts is generally well off. Golden Gai is well visit web page as a meeting place for musicians, cheap biography writers services liverpool, directors, writers, academics and actors, including many celebrities.
Many of the bars only welcome regular customers, who initially should be introduced by an existing patron, although many others welcome non-regulars, some even making efforts to attract overseas tourists by displaying signs and price lists in English. Since then it has developed as a drinking area, and at least some of the bars can trace their origins back to the s. The medina is typically walled, contains many narrow and maze-like streets. Because of the very narrow streets, medinas are generally free from car traffic, and in some cases even motorcycle and bicycle traffic.
The streets can be less than a metre wide. This makes them unique among highly populated urban centres. The Medina of FesMorocco or Fes el Baliis considered one of the largest car-free urban areas in the world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An alley in FiraSantoriniGreece. Howey Place, MelbourneAustralia. Hagay Street, Old City, Jerusalem. Rua Sobre-o-Douro, PortoPortugal. Main please click for source Steps of Cincinnati.
Arco di Via Tirolo, Rodi GarganicoPugliaItaly. Centre Place in Melbourne. Schnoor neighbourhood in Cheap biography writers services liverpoolGermany.
Columbia, SC, University of South Carolina Press,pp. Retrieved 17 May Retrieved July 30, Retrieved July 31, New York City Department of Transportation.
Accessed: July 30, The Stairs of Telegraph Hill" Time. Archived from the original on 1 January Communities" on the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation website November See also Google maps. Pelzer, "Coffee Houses of Augustan London," History Today, October, cheap biography writers services liverpool, pp. Retrieved 30 July Cheap biography writers services liverpool of London: volume Covent Garden.
Institute of Historical Research. The Annals of London. University of California Press. Retrieved 2 August Accessed: 11 August Retrieved 1 Jan Palmer]: to which is added a glossary, by J. Posted on 19 May . See also: David Wilson, Staffordshire Dialect Words: A Historical Survey. Moorland Publishing Company, The Place Names of Edinburgh. Planning Bulletin No Western Australian Planning Commission. Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 18 February Guinness World Records Random House Publishing Group.
E-Paper — Wirtschaft-Neckar Alb. Stockholms gatunamn 2nd ed. The Chinese Language: Its History and Current Usage.
Retrieved 10 October Accessed 15 January Longtang however might not be so explicit as lilong for the li in lilong means The earliest lilong compound resembled the lifang residential ward in imperial capitals, but instead of being enclosed by Highway systems by country. Diamond grinding of pavement. Glossary of road transport cheap biography writers services liverpool. Road types by features.
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Horatio was the inaugural Miriam Allott Creative Writing Fellow at the University of Liverpool, and lectures in creative writing at Liverpool John Moores University. His books have been listed for numerous prizes, winning cheap biography writers services liverpool Somerset Cheap biography writers services liverpool best article writers service au, the Foreign Press Association award and the Stanford-Dolman travel book of the year.
A graduate of Barnard College, she also holds an M. Her essays on books and culture have appeared in many publications, including The New York Times Book Review, The Guardian, the Times Literary Supplement, the FT, and frieze, and she is a contributing editor at The White Review. Her novel, Floating Citieswas awarded the Prix des Lecteurs at the Rue des Livres literary festival.
Julian Ferraro is a Lecturer in English Literature in the Department of English. Current projects include work on contemporary pictorial narrative and the intersection between literature, architecture, and nostalgia — in particular the comics of the Canadian writers and artists Seth and Dean Motter.
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She loves many kinds of new writing, especially history, biography, and books with a strong sense of place. Emma Hayward is a Miriam Allott Fellow at the Centre for New and International Writing, in cheap biography writers services liverpool Department of English. She works primarily on twentieth-century and contemporary writing, with a particular focus on urban space and the interdisciplinary connections between literary and visual forms, including architecture, film, and cheap biography writers services liverpool. She has written and published on British writers Iain Sinclair and Lee Rourke, examining their literary and cinematic approaches to the construction of London.
She is currently focusing on the intersections between literature, architecture and nostalgia in contemporary pictorial narrative, particularly the comics and graphic novels of Ben Katchor, Jason Lutes, Barbara Yelin and Ben Gijsemans. David Hering writes and researches primarily on American and British fiction after He is particularly interested in form and narrative structure in contemporary fiction, cheap biography writers services liverpool well as recent developments related to the "end of postmodernism" and the intersection between literary and cinematic techniques.
He is co-director of the Modern and Contemporary Literature MA with Dr Lucienne Loh and has recently supervised dissertations on s metafiction, graphic novels and "post-postmodernism". Lucienne Loh s a Lecturer in English Literature in the Department of English. She works primarily in the areas of postcolonial literature and theory, international writing and contemporary British fiction.
In particular, she is interested in the intersection between literature and politics, especially around theories of globalisation and transnationalism.
She has published widely in journals and edited collections with an international focus, including in Textual Practice, the Journal of Commonwealth Literature and the Journal of Postcolonial Writing where she has written on writers as diverse as W.
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Her second full-length poetry collection, Eidolona modern re-vision of the Helen of Troy myth, was published by Shearsman in Her biography cheap biography writers services liverpool Mirrlees is forthcoming as is a planned edition of the Collected Poems of Nancy Cunard.
She co-curated the Liverpool Biennial and has joined the board of trustees of the Liverpool Biennial. Deryn Rees-Jones is a poet, editor and critic. She has published four full-length collections of poetry, most recently Burying the Wren a Poetry Book Society Recommendation and shortlisted for the T. Eliot and Roland Matthias prize.
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He is particularly interested in the ways in which states of mind can be represented textually, and more broadly in the links between writing and mental health; his current creative projects are concerned with the relationship between biography, diagnosis, and textual form.
Sam Solnick primarily works on contemporary poetry and the relationship between literature and science. He has published work on JH Prynne, Ted Hughes, irony, the short story and site-specific performance.
He is a contributing editor for the quarterly arts journal The White Review and has reviewed poetry, fiction, theatre, film and criticism for a variety of publications including The Independent, the Times Literary Supplement and The Glasgow Review of Books.
His first monograph, Poetry and the Anthropocenewill be published by Routledge in summer and he is currently working on a new project that explores representations of climate change across literature, performance check this out visual culture.
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