United Statesofficially United States of Americaabbreviated U. Besides the 48 conterminous states that occupy the middle latitudes of the continent, the United States includes the state of Alaskaat the northwestern extreme of North America, and the island state of Hawaii top editing sites united states, in the mid-Pacific Ocean.
The conterminous states are bounded on the north by Canadaon the east by the Atlantic Oceanon the south by the Gulf of Mexico and Mexicoand on the west by the Pacific Ocean. The United States is the fourth largest country in go here world in area after RussiaCanada, and China.
Sanatorien best speech writer services united kingdom die national capital is Washingtonwhich is coextensive with the District of Columbia, the federal capital region created in The major characteristic of the United States is probably its great variety.
Its physical environment ranges from the Arctic to the subtropical, from the moist rain forest to the arid desert, from the rugged mountain peak to the flat prairie. Although the total population of the United States is large by world cheap post ghostwriter service gb blog, its overall population density is relatively low. The United States contains a here diverse population.
Unlike a country such as China that largely incorporated indigenous peoples, the United States has a diversity that to a great degree has come from an immense and sustained global immigration. Probably no other country has a wider range of racial, ethnic, top editing sites united states cultural types than does the United States.
In addition to the presence of surviving Native Americans including American Indians, Aleutsand Eskimos and the descendants of Africans taken as slaves to the New World, the national character has been enriched, tested, and constantly redefined by the aber best essay writers for hire nyc die of millions of immigrants who by and large have come to America hoping for greater social, political, and economic opportunities than they had in the places they left.
Despite its relative economic self-sufficiency in many areas, the United States is the most important single factor in world trade by virtue of the sheer size of its economy.
Its exports and imports represent major proportions of the world total. The United States also impinges on the global economy as a source of and as a destination for investment capital.
The United States is relatively young by world standards, being less than years old; it achieved its current size only in the midth top editing sites united states. America was the first of the European colonies to separate successfully from its motherland, and it was the first nation to be established on the premise that sovereignty rests with its citizens and not with the government.
In its first century and a half, the country was mainly preoccupied with its own territorial expansion and economic growth and with social debates that ultimately led to civil war and a healing period top editing sites united states is still top editing sites united states complete.
In the 20th century the United States emerged as a world power, and since World War II it has been one of the preeminent powers. It has not accepted this mantle link nor always carried it willingly; the principles and ideals of its founders have been tested by the pressures and exigencies of its dominant status.
The United States still offers its residents opportunities for unparalleled personal advancement and wealth. However, the depletion of its resources, the contamination of its environment, and the continuing social and economic inequality that perpetuates areas of poverty and blight all threaten the fabric of the country.
The District of Columbia is discussed in the article Washington. For discussion of other major U. Political units in top editing sites united states with the United States include Puerto Rico, discussed in the article Puerto Ricoand several Pacific islands, discussed in GuamNorthern Mariana Islandsand American Top editing sites united states. The two great sets of elements that mold the physical environment of the United States are, first, the geologic, which determines the main patterns of landforms, drainage, and mineral resources and influences soils to a lesser degree, and, second, the atmospheric, which dictates not only climate and weather but also in large part the distribution of soils, plants, and animals.
Although these elements are top editing sites united states bekannte top masters essay writing service usa Styx independent of one another, each produces on a map patterns that are so profoundly different that essentially they remain two separate geographies.
Since this article covers only the conterminous United States, see also the articles Alaska and Hawaii. The centre of the conterminous United States is a great sprawling interior lowland, reaching from the ancient shield of central Canada on the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south. To east and west this lowland rises, first gradually and then abruptly, to mountain ranges that divide it from the sea on both sides.
The two mountain systems differ drastically. Top editing sites united states Appalachian Mountains on the east are low, almost unbroken, and in the main set well back from the Atlantic.
From New York to the Mexican border stretches the low Coastal Plainwhich faces the ocean along a swampy, convoluted coast. The gently sloping surface of the plain extends out beneath the sea, where it forms the continental shelf, which, although submerged beneath shallow ocean water, is geologically identical to the Coastal Plain.
Southward the plain grows wider, swinging westward in Georgia and Alabama to truncate the Appalachians along their southern extremity and separate the interior lowland from the Gulf. West of the Central Lowland is the mighty Cordillera, part of a global mountain system that rings the Pacific basin. The Cordillera encompasses fully one-third of the United States, with an internal variety commensurate with its size. At its eastern margin lie the Rocky Mountains, a high, diverse, and discontinuous chain that stretches all the way from New Mexico to the Canadian border.
Pent between the Rockies and the Pacific chain is a vast intermontane complex of basins, plateaus, and isolated ranges so large and remarkable that they merit recognition as a region separate from the Cordillera itself.
These regions—the Interior Lowlands and their upland fringes, the Appalachian Mountain system, the Atlantic Plain, the Western Cordillera, and the Western Intermontane Region—are so various that top editing sites united states require further division into 24 major subregions, or provinces. Andrew Jackson is supposed to have remarked that the United States begins at the Allegheniesimplying that only west of the mountains, in the isolation and freedom of the great Interior Lowlands, could people finally escape Old World influences.
This enormous region rests upon an ancient, much-eroded platform of complex crystalline rocks that have for the most part lain undisturbed by major orogenic mountain-building activity for more than , years.
In the United States most of the crystalline platform is concealed under a deep blanket of sedimentary rocks. In the far north, however, the naked Canadian Shield extends into the United States far enough to form two small but distinctive landform regions: the rugged and occasionally spectacular Adirondack Mountains top editing sites united states northern New York and the more-subdued and austere Superior Upland of northern MinnesotaWisconsinand Michigan.
As in the rest of the shield, glaciers have stripped soils away, strewn the surface with boulders and other debris, and obliterated preglacial drainage systems. Most attempts at farming in these areas have been abandoned, but the combination of a comparative wilderness in a northern climate, clear lakes, and white-water streams has fostered the development of both regions as year-round outdoor recreation areas.
Mineral wealth in the Superior Upland is legendary. Iron lies near the surface and close to the deepwater ports of the upper Great Lakes. South of the Adirondack Mountains and the Superior Upland lies the boundary between crystalline and sedimentary rocks; abruptly, everything is different. The core of this sedimentary region—the heartland of the United States—is the great Central Lowlandwhich stretches for 1, miles 2, kilometres from New York to central Texas and north another 1, miles to the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.
To some, the landscape may seem dull, for heights of more than 2, feet metres are unusual, and truly rough terrain is almost lacking. Landscapes are varied, however, largely as the result of glaciation that directly or indirectly affected most of the subregion. North of the Missouri — Ohio river line, the advance and readvance of continental ice left an intricate mosaic of boulders, sand, gravel, silt, and clay and a complex pattern of lakes and drainage channels, some abandoned, some still in use.
The southern part of the Central Lowland is quite different, covered mostly with loess wind-deposited silt that further subdued the already low relief surface. Elsewhere, especially near major rivers, postglacial streams carved the loess into rounded hills, and visitors have aptly compared their billowing shapes to the waves of the sea. Above all, the loess produces soil of extraordinary fertility. The Central Lowland resembles a vast saucer, rising gradually to higher lands on all sides.
Southward and eastward, the land rises gradually to three major plateaus. Beyond the reach of glaciation to the south, the sedimentary rocks have been raised into two broad upwarps, separated from one another by the great valley of the Mississippi River. The Ozark Plateau lies west of the river and occupies most of southern Missouri and northern Top editing sites united states ; on the east the Interior Low Plateaus dominate central Kentucky and Tennessee.
Except for two nearly circular patches of rich limestone country—the Nashville Basin of Tennessee top editing sites united states the Kentucky Bluegrass region —most of both plateau regions consists of sandstone uplands, intricately http://piernassexy.co/cheap-cv-writers-services-sf.php by streams.
Local relief runs to several hundreds of feet in most places, and visitors to the region must travel winding roads along narrow stream valleys. The soils there are poor, and mineral resources are scanty. Eastward from the Central Lowland the Appalachian Plateau —a narrow band of dissected uplands that strongly resembles the Ozark Plateau and Interior Low Plateaus in steep slopes, wretched soils, and endemic poverty—forms a transition between the interior plains and the Appalachian Mountains.
Usually, however, the Appalachian Plateau is considered a subregion of the Appalachian Mountains, partly on grounds of location, partly because of geologic structure. Unlike the other plateaus, where rocks are warped upward, the rocks there form an elongated basin, wherein bituminous coal has been preserved from erosion.
This Appalachian coal, like the Mesabi iron that it complements in U. Extensive, thick, and close to the surface, it has stoked the furnaces of northeastern steel mills for decades and helps explain the huge concentration of heavy industry along the lower Great Lakes. The western flanks of the Interior Lowlands are the Great Plainsa territory of awesome bulk that spans the full distance between Canada and Mexico in a swath nearly miles km wide. Top editing sites united states Great Plains were built by successive layers of poorly cemented sand, silt, and gravel—debris laid down by parallel east-flowing streams from the Rocky Mountains.
Seen from the east, the surface of the Great Plains rises inexorably from about 2, feet metres near OmahaNebraskato more than 6, feet 1, metres at CheyenneWyoming, but the climb is so gradual that popular legend holds the Great Plains to be flat.
True flatness is rare, although the High Top editing sites united states of western TexasOklahoma top editing sites united states, Kansasand eastern Colorado come close.
More commonly, the land is broadly rolling, and parts of the northern plains are sharply dissected into badlands. The main mineral wealth of the Interior Lowlands derives from fossil fuels. Coal occurs in structural basins protected from erosion—high-quality bituminous in the Appalachian, Illinoisand western Kentucky basins; and subbituminous and lignite in the eastern and northwestern Great Plains.
Petroleum and natural gas have been found in nearly every state between the Appalachians and the Rockies, but the Midcontinent Fields of western Texas and the Texas Panhandle, Oklahoma, and Kansas surpass all others. Aside from small deposits of lead and zinc, metallic minerals are of little importance.
The Appalachians dominate the eastern United States and separate the Eastern Seaboard from the interior with a belt of subdued uplands that extends nearly read more, miles 2, km from northeastern Alabama to the Canadian border. They are old, complex mountains, the eroded stumps of much greater ranges.
Present topography results from erosion that has carved weak rocks away, leaving a skeleton of resistant rocks behind as highlands. Geologic differences are thus faithfully reflected in topography. Top editing sites united states the Appalachians these differences are sharply demarcated and neatly arranged, so that all the major subdivisions except New England lie in strips parallel to the Atlantic and to one another. The core of the Appalachians is a belt of complex metamorphic and igneous rocks that stretches all the way from Alabama to New Hampshire.
Top editing sites united states western side of this belt forms the long slender rampart top editing sites united states the Blue Ridge Mountains, containing the highest elevations in the Appalachians Mount MitchellNorth Carolina, 6, feet [2, metres] and some of its most handsome mountain scenery.
On top editing sites united states eastern, or seaward, side the Blue Top editing sites united states descends in an abrupt and sometimes spectacular escarpment to the Piedmonta well-drained, rolling land—never quite hills, but never quite a plain. Before the settlement of the Midwest the Piedmont was the most productive agricultural region in the United States, and several Pennsylvania counties still consistently report some of the highest farm yields per acre in the entire country.
West of the crystalline zone, away from the axis of primary geologic deformation, sedimentary rocks have escaped metamorphism but are compressed into tight folds. Erosion has carved the upturned edges of these folded rocks into the remarkable Ridge and Valley country of the western Appalachians. Long linear ridges characteristically stand about 1, top editing sites united states metres from base to crest top editing sites united states run for tens of miles, paralleled by broad open valleys of comparable length.
In Pennsylvania, ridges run unbroken for great distances, occasionally turning abruptly in a zigzag pattern; by contrast, the southern ridges are broken by faults and form short, parallel segments top editing sites united states are lined up like magnetized iron filings. By far the largest valley—and one of the most important routes in North America—is the Great Valleytop editing sites united states extraordinary trench of shale and limestone that runs nearly the entire length of the Appalachians.
It provides a lowland passage from the middle Hudson valley to HarrisburgPennsylvania, and on southward, where it forms the Shenandoah and Cumberland valleysand has been one of the main paths through the Appalachians since pioneer times. In New England it is floored with slates and marbles and forms the Valley of Vermont, one of the few fertile areas in an otherwise mountainous region. Topography much like that of the Ridge and Custom admission essay editor service is found in the Ouachita Mountains of western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma, an area generally thought to be a detached continuation of Appalachian geologic structure, the intervening section buried beneath the sediments of the lower Mississippi valley.
The once-glaciated New England section of the Appalachians is divided from the rest of the chain by an indentation of the Atlantic. Although almost completely underlain by crystalline rocks, New England is laid out in north—south bands, reminiscent of the southern Appalachians.
The rolling, rocky hills of please click for source New England are not dissimilar to the Piedmont, while, farther northwest, the rugged and lofty White Mountains are a New England analogue to the Blue Ridge.
Mount WashingtonNew Hampshire, at 6, feet [1, metres], is the highest peak in the northeastern United States. The westernmost ranges—the TaconicsBerkshiresand Green Mountains —show a strong north—south lineation like the Ridge and Valley. Unlike the rest of the Appalachians, however, glaciation has scoured the crystalline rocks much like those of the Canadian Shield, so that New England is best known for its picturesque landscape, not for its fertile soil.
Typical of diverse geologic regions, the Appalachians contain a great variety of minerals. The eastern and southeastern fringes of the United States are part of the outermost margins of the continental platform, repeatedly invaded by the sea and veneered with layer after layer of young, poorly consolidated sediments.
Part top editing sites united states this platform now lies slightly above sea level and forms a nearly flat and often swampy coastal plain, which stretches from Cape CodMassachusettsto beyond the Mexican border. Most of the platform, however, is still submerged, so that a band of shallow water, the continental shelf, parallels the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, in some places reaching miles km out to sea.
The Atlantic Plain slopes so gently that even slight crustal upwarping can shift the coastline far out top editing sites united states sea at the expense of the continental shelf. The peninsula of Florida is just such an upwarp: nowhere in its mile km length does the land rise more than feet metres above sea level; much of the southern and coastal areas rise less than 10 feet 3 metres and are poorly drained and dangerously exposed to Atlantic storms. Downwarps can result in extensive flooding.
Another downwarp lies perpendicular to the Gulf coast and guides the link of the lower Mississippi. The river, however, has filled with alluvium what otherwise would be an arm of the Gulf, forming a great inland salient of the Coastal Plain called the Mississippi Embayment.
South of New York the Coastal Plain gradually widens, but ocean water has invaded the lower valleys of most of the coastal rivers and has turned them into estuaries.
The greatest of these is Chesapeake Baymerely the flooded lower valley of the Susquehanna River and its tributaries, but there are hundreds of others. Offshore a line of sandbars and barrier beaches stretches intermittently the length of the Coastal Plain, hampering entry of shipping into the estuaries but providing the eastern United States with a playground that is more than 1, miles 1, km long. Onshore and offshore drilling have revealed colossal reserves of oil and natural gas.
Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Established inthe United States is young compared to many other countries. Yet by the s the United States had grown into a world power. The capital is Washington, D. For the history of the United States see the separate United States history article.
The United States represents a series of ideals. It means the ideal of progress-that personal life and political, social, and economic institutions will improve through hard work, fair play, and honest endeavor. In order to understand the United States, it is necessary to consider the role top cover letter writers websites for mba ideals have played in its development.
Area 3, square miles 9, square kilometers. We welcome top editing sites united states improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to top editing sites united states and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support top editing sites united states changes, so that we can fully understand their context.
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Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and top editing sites united states also contact you if any clarifications are needed. What are you looking for? Official name United States of America Form of government federal republic with two legislative houses Senate ; House of Representatives [ 1 ] Head of state and government President: Donald Trump Capital Washington, D.
Official language none Official religion none Monetary unit dollar U. Virgin IslandsAmerican Samoathe Northern Mariana Islandsand Guam and a nonvoting resident commissioner from Puerto Rico.
Country Data Overview PDF. Screw Auger Falls in the Mahoosuc Range, northern Appalachian Mountains, Maine. Ridge-and-valley topography in the Appalachian Highlands, near Bristol, Tennessee, U.
Mount Washington, in the White Mountains, New Hampshire. Learn about the landforms and climate of the southeastern United States. CIA - The World Factbook - United States. Civil War Trust - Slavery in the United States. Energy Kids- Oil Petroleum. Maps of World - United States of America. Michigan State University - globalEDGE - United States. National Geographic - Travel - United States. Official Site of the Embassy and Consulates of the United States in Paris, France.
Official Site of the Embassy of the United States Accara, Ghana. Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Bangkok, Thailand. Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Top editing sites united states. Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Bucharest, Romania.
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Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Ndjamena, Chad. Official Site of the Embassy of the United Top editing sites united states in Nicosia, Cyprus. Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Oslo, Norway. Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Paramaribo, Suriname.
Official Top editing sites united states of the Embassy of the United States in Top editing sites united states, Chile.
Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Sri Lanka and Maldives. Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Sweden. Official Site of the Embassy of the United States in Windhoek, Namibia.
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Official Site of the United States Embassy and Consulates in Saudi Arabia. Official Site of the United States Embassy and Consulates in the United Kingdom. Public Broadcasting Service - American Experience - Reconstruction. The Catholic Encyclopedia - The United States of America. Department of State - Office of the Historian - The United States and the French Revolution.
Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. A Study of History: Fact or Fiction? Take this History True or False Quiz at Encyclopedia Britannica to test your knowledge of the Hope Diamond, Roman Catholic saints, and more historic facts.
Take this Quiz island country located off the top editing sites united states coast of mainland Europe. The United Kingdom comprises the whole of the island of Great Britain—which contains England, Wales, and Scotland —as well as the Read this Article second largest country in the world in area after Russiaoccupying roughly the northern two-fifths of the continent of North America.
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Take this Quiz country of East Asia. It is the largest of all Asian countries and has the largest population of any country in the world. Occupying nearly the entire East Asian landmass, it occupies approximately one-fourteenth Read this Article British offensive 20 November—8 December on the Western Front during World War I that marked the first large-scale, effective use of tanks in warfare.
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